You've already seen how to create custom character classes and various avatars of special groupings. In this chapter you'll learn more groupings, known as lookarounds, that help to create custom anchors and add conditions within regexp definition. These assertions are also known as zero-width patterns because they add restrictions similar to anchors and are not part of the matched portions. Also, you will learn how to negate a grouping similar to negated character sets.

Conditional expressions

Before you get used to lookarounds too much, it is good to remember that JavaScript is a programming language. You have control structures and you can combine multiple conditions using logical operators, methods like every/some, etc. Also, do not forget that regexp is only one of the tools available for string processing.

> let items = ['1,2,3,4', 'a,b,c,d', '#foo 123']

// filter elements containing digit and '#' characters
> items.filter(s => /\d/.test(s) && s.includes('#'))
< ["#foo 123"]
// modify elements only if it doesn't start with '#'
> items.filter(s => s[0] != '#').map(s => s.replace(/,.+,/, ' '))
< ["1 4", "a d"]

Negative lookarounds

Lookaround assertions can be added in two ways — lookbehind and lookahead. Each of these can be a positive or a negative assertion. Syntax wise, lookbehind has an extra < compared to the lookahead version. Negative lookarounds can be identified by the use of ! whereas = is used for positive lookarounds. This section is about negative lookarounds, whose complete syntax is shown below.

  • (?!pat) for negative lookahead assertion
  • (?<!pat) for negative lookbehind assertion

As mentioned earlier, lookarounds are not part of matched portions and do not capture the matched text.

// change 'foo' only if it is not followed by a digit character
// note that end of string satisfies the given assertion
// 'foofoo' has two matches as the assertion doesn't consume characters
> 'hey food! foo42 foot5 foofoo'.replace(/foo(?!\d)/g, 'baz')
< "hey bazd! foo42 bazt5 bazbaz"

// change 'foo' only if it is not preceded by _
// note how 'foo' at start of string is matched as well
> 'foo _foo 42foofoo'.replace(/(?<!_)foo/g, 'baz')
< "baz _foo 42bazbaz"

// overlap example
// 'foot' doesn't match because it is preceded by '_'
// the '_' before 'foot' was considered even though it got replaced
> 'food _fool 42foo_foot'.replace(/(?<!_)foo./g, 'baz')
< "baz _fool 42bazfoot"

Can be mixed with anchors and other regexp features to define truly powerful restrictions.

// change whole word only if it is not preceded by : or --
> ':cart apple --rest ;tea'.replace(/(?<!:|--)\b\w+/g, 'X')
< ":cart X --rest ;X"

// add space to word boundaries, but not at start or end of string
// similar to: replace(/\b/g, ' ').trim()
> 'foo_baz=num1+35*42/num2'.replace(/(?<!^)\b(?!$)/g, ' ')
< "foo_baz = num1 + 35 * 42 / num2"

In all the examples so far, lookahead grouping was placed as a suffix and lookbehind as a prefix. This is how they are used most of the time, but not the only way to use them. Lookarounds can be placed anywhere and multiple lookarounds can be combined in any order. They do not consume characters nor do they play a role in matched portions. They just let you know whether the condition you want to test is satisfied from the current location in the input string.

// these two are equivalent
// replace a character as long as it is not preceded by 'p' or 'r'
> 'spare'.replace(/(?<![pr])./g, '*')
< "**a*e"
> 'spare'.replace(/.(?<![pr].)/g, '*')
< "**a*e"

// replace 'par' as long as 's' is not present later in the input
// this assumes that the lookaround doesn't conflict with search pattern
// i.e. 's' will not conflict 'par' but would affect if it was 'r' and 'par'
> 'par spare part party'.replace(/par(?!.*s)/g, 'X')
< "par sXe Xt Xty"
> 'par spare part party'.replace(/(?!.*s)par/g, 'X')
< "par sXe Xt Xty"

// since the three assertions used here are all zero-width,
// all of the 6 possible combinations will be equivalent
> 'foo_baz=num1+35*42/num2'.replace(/(?!$)\b(?<!^)/g, ' ')
< "foo_baz = num1 + 35 * 42 / num2"

info See this stackoverflow Q&A for a workaround if lookbehind isn't supported.

Positive lookarounds

Unlike negative lookarounds, absence of the pattern will not satisfy positive lookarounds. Instead, for the condition to satisfy, the pattern has to match actual characters and/or zero-width assertions. Positive lookaround can be identified by use of = in the grouping. The complete syntax looks like:

  • (?=pat) for positive lookahead assertion
  • (?<=pat) for positive lookbehind assertion
// extract digits only if it is followed by ,
// note that end of string doesn't qualify as this is positive assertion
> '42 foo-5, baz3; x83, y-20; f12'.match(/\d+(?=,)/g)
< ["5", "83"]
// extract digits only if it is preceded by - and followed by , or ;
> '42 foo-5, baz3; x83, y-20; f12'.match(/(?<=-)\d+(?=[;,])/g)
< ["5", "20"]

// same as: match(/\b\w/g).join('')
> 'sea eat car rat eel tea'.replace(/(?<=\b\w)\w*\W*/g, '')
< "secret"

// replace 'par' as long as 'part' occurs as a whole word later in the line
> 'par spare part party'.replace(/par(?=.*\bpart\b)/g, 'X')
< "X sXe part party"

Lookarounds are quite handy in dealing with field based processing.

// except first and last fields
> '1,two,3,four,5'.match(/(?<=,)[^,]+(?=,)/g)
< ["two", "3", "four"]

// replace empty fields with NA
// note that in this example, order of lookbehind and lookahead doesn't matter
> ',1,,,two,3,,'.replace(/(?<=^|,)(?=,|$)/g, 'NA')
< "NA,1,NA,NA,two,3,NA,NA"
// same thing with negative lookarounds
> ',1,,,two,3,,'.replace(/(?![^,])(?<![^,])/g, 'NA')
< "NA,1,NA,NA,two,3,NA,NA"

// there is an extra empty string match at end of non-empty columns
> ',cat,tiger'.replace(/[^,]*/g, '{$&}')
< "{},{cat}{},{tiger}{}"
// lookarounds to the rescue
> ',cat,tiger'.replace(/(?<=^|,)[^,]*/g, '{$&}')
< "{},{cat},{tiger}"

Capture groups inside positive lookarounds

Even though lookarounds are not part of matched portions, capture groups can be used inside positive lookarounds. Can you reason out why it won't work for negative lookarounds?

> console.log('a b c d e'.replace(/(\S+\s+)(?=(\S+)\s)/g, '$1$2\n'))
< a b
  b c
  c d
  d e

AND conditional with lookarounds

As promised earlier, here's how lookarounds make it simpler to construct AND conditionals.

> let words = ['sequoia', 'subtle', 'questionable', 'exhibit', 'equation']

// words containing 'b' and 'e' and 't' in any order
// same as: /b.*e.*t|b.*t.*e|e.*b.*t|e.*t.*b|t.*b.*e|t.*e.*b/
> words.filter(w => /(?=.*b)(?=.*e).*t/.test(w))
< ["subtle", "questionable", "exhibit"]

// words containing all vowels in any order
> words.filter(w => /(?=.*a)(?=.*e)(?=.*i)(?=.*o).*u/.test(w))
< ["sequoia", "questionable", "equation"]

// words containing 'a' and 'q' but not 'n' at the end of the element
> words.filter(w => /(?=.*a)(?=.*q)(?!.*n$)/.test(w))
< ["sequoia", "questionable"]

Variable length lookbehind

In some of the implementations of regular expressions, lookbehind doesn't work if the pattern can match varying number of characters. For example, (?<=foo\d+) is looking behind for foo followed by one or more of digit characters. As far as I've tested on the console, there's no such restriction in JavaScript. Here's some examples that were tested.

// positive lookbehind examples
> '=314not :,2irk ,:3cool =42,error'.match(/(?<=[:=]\d+)[a-z]+/g)
< ["not", "cool"]
// replace only 3rd occurrence of 'cat'
> 'cat scatter cater scat'.replace(/(?<=(cat.*?){2})cat/, 'X')
< "cat scatter Xer scat"

// negative lookbehind examples
// match only if 'cat' doesn't occur before 'dog'
> /(?<!cat.*)dog/.test('fox,cat,dog,parrot')
< false
// match only if 'parrot' doesn't occur before 'dog'
> /(?<!parrot.*)dog/.test('fox,cat,dog,parrot')
< true

Negated grouping

You've seen a few cases where negated character class was useful than a positive set. For example, in field based processing, it is needed to match the field contents by creating a negated character set of the delimiter character. In a similar manner, there are cases where you need to negate a regexp pattern. This is made possible by using negative lookahead and advancing one character at a time as shown below.

// cannot use /at(?<!go)par/ as lookarounds do not consume characters
// match if 'go' is not there between 'at' and 'par'
> /at((?!go).)*par/.test('fox,cat,dog,parrot')
< true
// match if 'do' is not there between 'at' and 'par'
> /at((?!do).)*par/.test('fox,cat,dog,parrot')
< false

// if it gets confusing, use 'match' method to see the matching portions
> 'fox,cat,dog,parrot'.match(/at((?!go).)*par/)[0]
< "at,dog,par"
> 'at,baz,a2z,bad-zoo'.match(/a((?!\d).)*z/g)
< ["at,baz", "ad-z"]

Cheatsheet and Summary

lookaroundsallows to create custom positive/negative assertions
zero-width like anchors and not part of matching portions
(?!pat)negative lookahead assertion
(?<!pat)negative lookbehind assertion
(?=pat)positive lookahead assertion
(?<=pat)positive lookbehind assertion
variable length lookbehind is allowed
(?!pat1)(?=pat2)multiple assertions can be specified next to each other in any order
as they mark a matching location without consuming characters
((?!pat).)*Negates a regexp pattern

In this chapter, you learnt how to use lookarounds to create custom restrictions and also how to use negated grouping. With this, most of the powerful features of regexp have been covered. The next chapter will give a brief introduction to working with unicode characters.


info Please use lookarounds for solving the following exercises even if you can do it without lookarounds.

a) Replace all whole words with X unless it is preceded by ( character.

> let ip = '(apple) guava berry) apple (mango) (grape'

// add your solution here
< "(apple) X X) X (mango) (grape"

b) Replace all whole words with X unless it is followed by ) character.

> let ip = '(apple) guava berry) apple (mango) (grape'

// add your solution here
< "(apple) X berry) X (mango) (X"

c) Replace all whole words with X unless it is preceded by ( or followed by ) characters.

> let ip = '(apple) guava berry) apple (mango) (grape'

// add your solution here
< "(apple) X berry) X (mango) (grape"

d) Extract all whole words that do not end with e or n.

> let ip = 'at row on urn e note dust n'

// add your solution here
< ["at", "row", "dust"]

e) Extract all whole words that do not start with a or d or n.

> let ip = 'at row on urn e note dust n'

// add your solution here
< ["row", "on", "urn", "e"]

f) Extract all whole words only if they are followed by : or , or -.

> let ip = 'poke,on=-=so:ink.to/is(vast)ever-sit'

// add your solution here
< ["poke", "so", "ever"]

g) Extract all whole words only if they are preceded by = or / or -.

> let ip = 'poke,on=-=so:ink.to/is(vast)ever-sit'

// add your solution here
< ["so", "is", "sit"]

h) Extract all whole words only if they are preceded by = or : and followed by : or ..

> let ip = 'poke,on=-=so:ink.to/is(vast)ever-sit'

// add your solution here
< ["so", "ink"]

i) Extract all whole words only if they are preceded by = or : or . or ( or - and not followed by . or /.

> let ip = 'poke,on=-=so:ink.to/is(vast)ever-sit'

// add your solution here
< ["so", "vast", "sit"]

j) Remove leading and trailing whitespaces from all the individual fields where , is the field separator.

> let csv1 = ' comma  ,separated ,values '
> let csv2 = 'good bad,nice  ice  , 42 , ,   stall   small'

> const trim_whitespace =       // add your solution here

> csv1.replace(trim_whitespace, '')
< "comma,separated,values"
> csv2.replace(trim_whitespace, '')
< "good bad,nice  ice,42,,stall   small"

k) Filter all elements that satisfy all of these rules:

  • should have at least two alphabets
  • should have at least 3 digits
  • should have at least one special character among % or * or # or $
  • should not end with a whitespace character
> let pwds = ['hunter2', 'F2h3u%9', '*X3Yz3.14\t', 'r2_d2_42', 'A $B C1234']

// add your solution here
< ["F2h3u%9", "A $B C1234"]

l) For the given string, surround all whole words with {} except for whole words par and cat and apple.

> let ip = 'part; cat {super} rest_42 par scatter apple spar'

// add your solution here
< "{part}; cat {{super}} {rest_42} par {scatter} apple {spar}"

m) Extract integer portion of floating-point numbers for the given string. A number ending with . and no further digits should not be considered.

> let ip = '12 ab32.4 go 5 2. 46.42 5'

// add your solution here
< ["32", "46"]

n) For the given input strings, extract all overlapping two character sequences.

> let s1 = 'apple'
> let s2 = '1.2-3:4'

> const pat1 =      // add your solution here

// add your solution here for s1
< ["ap", "pp", "pl", "le"]
// add your solution here for s2
< ["1.", ".2", "2-", "-3", "3:", ":4"]

o) The given input strings contain fields separated by : character. Delete : and the last field if there is a digit character anywhere before the last field.

> let s1 = '42:cat'
> let s2 = 'twelve:a2b'
> let s3 = 'we:be:he:0:a:b:bother'

> const pat2 =      // add your solution here

> s1.replace(pat2, '')
< "42"
> s2.replace(pat2, '')
< "twelve:a2b"
> s3.replace(pat2, '')
< "we:be:he:0:a:b"

p) Extract all whole words unless they are preceded by : or <=> or ---- or #.

> let ip = '::very--at<=>row|in.a_b#b2c=>lion----east'

// add your solution here
< ["at", "in", "a_b", "lion"]

q) Match strings if it contains qty followed by price but not if there is whitespace or the string error between them.

> let str1 = '23,qty,price,42'
> let str2 = 'qty price,oh'
> let str3 = '3.14,qty,6,errors,9,price,3'
> let str4 = '42\nqty-6,apple-56,price-234,error'
> let str5 = '4,price,3.14,qty,4'

> const neg =       // add your solution here

> neg.test(str1)
< true
> neg.test(str2)
< false
> neg.test(str3)
< false
> neg.test(str4)
< true
> neg.test(str5)
< false

r) Can you reason out why the output shown is different for these two regular expressions?

> let ip = 'I have 12, he has 2!'

> ip.replace(/\b..\b/g, '{$&}')
< "{I }have {12}{, }{he} has{ 2}!"

> ip.replace(/(?<!\w)..(?!\w)/g, '{$&}')
< "I have {12}, {he} has {2!}"

s) Simulate string partitioning to get an array of three elements — string before separator, portion matched by separator and string after separator. For the first case, split the given input string on first occurrence of digits. For the second case, split based on last occurrence of digits.

> let w2 = 'Sample123string42with777numbers'

// add your solution here for splitting based on first occurrence
< ["Sample", "123", "string42with777numbers"]

// add your solution here for splitting based on last occurrence
< ["Sample123string42with", "777", "numbers"]

t) Find the starting index of last occurrence of is or the or was or to for the given input strings using search method. Assume that there will be at least one match for each input string.

> let s1 = 'match after the last newline character'
> let s2 = 'and then you want to test'
> let s3 = 'this is good bye then'
> let s4 = 'who was there to see?'

> const pat3 =      // add your solution here

> s1.search(pat3)
< 12
> s2.search(pat3)
< 18
> s3.search(pat3)
< 17
> s4.search(pat3)
< 14